Table of Contents

Comparative Teaching Unit

Roman Army




Unit I

The Rise of Civilizations


Chapter 1

Human Beginnings


Chapter 2

Early Civilizations


Chapter 3

Kingdoms and Empires in the Middle East




Unit II

The Flowering of Civilizations


Chapter 4

The Rise of Ancient Greece


Chapter 5

The Height of Greek Civilization


Chapter 6

Ancient Rome and Early Christianity


Chapter 7

Flowering of African Civilization


Chapter 8

India's Great  Civilization


Chapter 9

China's Flourishing Civilization



"History is a guide to navigation in perilous times. History is who we are and why we are the way we are."

- David C. McCullough

Mr. Parkin as a terracotta warrior, June 2010.


Early Roman Armies.

Early Roman Warriors

Roman Warrior Bands

Horatius at the Tiber Bridge

Venetic Fighting System


Roman Hoplites

Samnite Warriors


Romans and Samnites


Armies of the Roman Republic.


2nd Punic War


2nd Macedonian War

Roman Infantry

Standard Bearers


Mounted General

Antesignan Soldiers

Late-Republican Army

Jugurthine War


Imperial Roman Armies.

Legionary Infantry


(Early-First Century)


(Mid-First Century)


(First Century)



(Mid-First Century)


(Late-First Century)


(Early-Imperial Era)


(First Century)

  • Sources.

    • Atchity, Kenneth J., editor.  The Classical Roman Reader.  New York, New York:  Oxford University Press, 1998.

    • Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price, editors.  Religions of Rome, Volume 2:  A Sourcebook.  Cambridge, England:  Cambridge University Press, 1998.

    • Frye, David G.  “Roman Soldiers Written Records” [in Britain], Military History Quarterly, volume 16, number 4 (Summer 2004), pages 84-92.

    • Guisepi, Robert A., director.  International World History Project:  World History from the Pre-Sumerian Period to the Present.  [Last accessed:  16th November 2011]

    • Halsall, Paul, editor.  Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.  New York, New York:  Fordham University, April 1998-October 2000. [Last accessed:  1st November 2011]

    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  The Internet Classic Archive.  Boston, Masaachusetts:  Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994.  [Last accessed 15th November 2011]

    • McMahon, Robin.  Arms and Men:  “Rapid Communication in Antiquity”, Military History Quarterly, volume 13, number 1 (Autumn 2000), pages 18-19.

    • O’Connell, Robert L.  “The Roman Killing Machine”, Military History Quarterly, volume 1, number 1 (Autumn 1988), pages 36-47.

    • Richey, Jeffrey L.  "Teaching Early China and Ancient Rome Comparatively," Education About Asia, Volume 13, Number 2 (Fall 2008), pages 38-43.

    • Richey, Jeffrey L.  Jeff Richey's Home Page.  [Last accessed:  1st November 2011]

    • Sheldon, Rose Mary.  “Toga & Dagger:  Espionage in Ancient Rome”, Military History Quarterly, volume 13, number 1 (Autumn 2000), pages 26-33.



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